Why is educational change so difficult and how can we make it more effective?


  • Tony Burner University of South-Eastern Norway, Faculty of Humanities, Sports and Educational Science, Department of Languages and Literature Studies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.23865/fof.v1.1081


One main issue in educational research and policy is educational change. Educational authorities, scholars and teachers working with educational change should ask themselves why educational change is necessary, reflect on its challenges and find ways to make change more effective. This theoretical article explores educational change by starting with the most essential questions, asking what educational change is and why it is necessary. By taking a look at the history of educational change and the processes involved when conducting educational change, grounded in empirical examples from large-scale studies and curriculum development in the Nordic context and educational assessment in England and Scotland, this article contributes to shedding light on the complexities of educational change policies and schoolbased research projects. The article concludes with various factors that have proved to be effective in the field of educational change.

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How to Cite

Burner, T. (2018). Why is educational change so difficult and how can we make it more effective?. Forskning og forandring, 1(1), 122–134. https://doi.org/10.23865/fof.v1.1081



Original Articles


School development, school improvement, professional development, educational assessment, curriculum development